The vast and complex world of radio communication has taken on countless forms throughout history, from its origins as an essential mode of communication to its evolution as an advertising tool. In today’s world, the radio may appear outdated and irrelevant in the face of technologies such as computers, mobile phones, and tablets.
However, it still boasts the most expansive audience footprint, reaching an astounding 3 billion people globally and 256 million in the United States each week, according to the National Association for Amateur Radio (ARRL).
Amidst the myriad forms of radio, one stands out as a classic piece of communication that some view as an archaic technology, applicable only to emergency communication by security forces and communication by movie stars and truck drivers.
This technology, known as ham radio or amateur radio, may appear outdated, but it has numerous benefits and uses, including entertainment, education, and social connection, and can even be a lifeline in times of crisis.
To fully understand the nuances of amateur radio, it is essential to explore its definition, history, the origin of its name, the functionality of handheld ham radios, and the equipment required for setup.
Furthermore, this guide delves into how radio amateurs can use the technology, communication systems, licensing process, multiple types of licenses available, and the benefits of amateur radio.
What Is Amateur Radio?
Ham or amateur radio is a radio service that operates using several frequencies to send and receive messages without the use of a mobile device or an internet service. These frequencies, complementing each other to transmit radio signals, are operated by amateur radio operators, affectionately known as “hams.”
Amateur radios are used strictly for non-commercial purposes, such as exchanging messages on sports, weather, politics, emergency communication, private recreation, and wireless experimentation. These services are known as Amateur Radio Services.
AMATEUR RADIO BANDS
Amateur radios are allocated few frequency bands compared to regular radio stations, according to the FCC. These ham radio bands range between the 1.6MHz AM radio band and 1240MHz, transmitting signals using various data communications modes ranging from voice, text, and data to images. While TV and FM radio stations use line-of-sight bands, amateur radios use short-wave bands.
The line-of-sight bands are limited to about forty or fifty miles, while the ability of short wave bands to bounce off the ionosphere when traveling from the transmitter’s antenna to the receivers enables them to reach all corners of the earth.
It is advisable to use ham radio bands ranging between 15MHz and 27MHz for long-distance communication during the day. At night, the ideal amateur radio bands should be about 1.6MHz to 15MHz.
The amateur radio frequency range includes two frequency bands, Ultra High Frequency (UHF) and Very High Frequency (VHF), both of which have their advantages and disadvantages.
ULTRA HIGH FREQUENCY (UHF)
Ultra High Frequency (UHF) is a radio frequency spectrum that ranges between 300MHz and 3GHz. The amateur radio service is allocated frequency bands between 420MHz and 450MHz. These frequencies have wavelengths that are shorter than their Very High-Frequency (VHF) counterparts. The wavelength ranges from one-tenth of a meter to one meter. The UHF frequencies are more susceptible to interference by solid objects, such as buildings or even your body, on their way, which can cause disturbances.
UHF radio frequencies allocated for amateur radios have wider frequency ranges than the VHF bands. Additionally, their audio signal quality is top-notch, guaranteeing clear conversations compared to the VHFs. This high-quality audio makes it easy for ham radio enthusiasts in neighboring geographic regions to use similar frequency channels or pairs.
VERY HIGH FREQUENCY (VHF)
On the other hand, VHF radio bands are found between the 30MHz to 300MHz frequency radio spectrum, with corresponding wavelengths ranging from one to ten meters. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) reserved the 144MHz to 148MHz range for the amateur radio service. The VHF bands promote simple communication, allowing amateur radio operators to have line-of-sight communications using their handheld radios. They are also reliable thanks to their low susceptibility to noise disturbances from other electrical devices.
HISTORY OF HAM RADIO
The history of ham radio technology dates back to the 1890s and early 1900s during the invention of radio communication. It began with Guglielmo Marconi sending the letter “S” in Morse Code from Cornwall in Great Britain to Newfoundland in Canada, across the Atlantic Ocean. From a young age, Marconi was always interested in technology and even pursued technical studies in Leghorn. His academics involved exploring electromagnetic wave possibilities and physics.
After completing his studies in 1895, Marconi started experimenting with improving radio waves’ message coherence at his father’s Pontecchio country estate. By 1896, Marconi sent Morse code radio signals for about four miles, concluding that radio waves could travel further than his predecessors had assumed.
Radio waves, capable of traveling long distances, are known as short waves. After transmission, short waves bounce off the ionosphere to reach distant regions, including marginalized ones with no cell phone coverage.
Marconi’s shortwave discovery not only gave birth to the long-distance communication known as shortwave radios today but also to ham radios, which use these waves to transmit messages. After their invention, ham radios’ use surged around the world. Currently, there are about 2,000,000 amateur radios worldwide. The United States alone boasts about 780,000 ham radio operators.
WHY THE NAME HAM RADIO?
The American Radio Relay League has three speculations about the origin of the name HAM radio.
- They include the acronym for the first ham radio station’s owners, Albert Hyman, Bob Almy, and Poogie Murray.
- The term “ham” was to mean “unprofessionally made,” hence describing ham radios as ordinary people, not professionals, made them, thus the rise of amateur radio societies.
- Ham comes from Oscar Hammarlund, who built a strong radio equipment brand in the early 1900s.
Due to the versatility of ham radio frequencies, the spectrum is divided into twenty-seven different amateur radio bands that bounce off from the transmitter onto the antenna. The equipment needed depends on your amateur radio license class and interests.
Some notable options among these include a transceiver (handheld, mounted, or mobile), antenna, antenna tuner, power source, and repeaters. Other equipment you may need include extra batteries, a charger, a headset with a microphone, a flashlight, and electrical tape.
If you are in the U.S., you should consider joining a community of amateur radio enthusiasts. One of the most notable entities on matters of ham radio has been the
AMERICAN RADIO RELAY LEAGUE
The American Radio Relay League (ARRL) is a national association for amateur radio operators in the United States. Established in 1914 by Hiram Percy Maxim as The American Radio Relay League, ARRL is a non-profit organization that strives to promote interest in Amateur Radio and coordinates voluntary disaster communications response.
With a membership that encompasses amateur radio operators of all ages, genders, and backgrounds, ARRL provides a plethora of benefits. These benefits include QST, the monthly ARRL membership journal, and QEX, a bi-monthly experimental radio publication, as well as access to online resources such as the members-only website, email lists, and discounts on ARRL publications, products, and services.
Additionally, ARRL offers a wide range of education and training programs designed to help new and experienced radio amateurs alike. These encompass everything from entry-level licensing courses to Amateur Radio Emergency Service (ARES) training, and more.
WHERE SHOULD YOU SET UP YOUR HAM RADIO?
However, when it comes to setting up your ham radio, where should you install it? If you intend to use your mobile amateur radio in a vehicle, you can mount it on your dashboard or under the seat by attaching the antenna to the car on the roof, hood, or tailgate. Conversely, suppose you possess a general license.
In that case, it’s best to have a ham base station in one location, such as your home.
Before setting up this station, ensure that you have a space within your house that won’t disturb your neighbors, allowing you to install cable antennas and maintain the optimum temperature required for all your equipment.
You should also be able to connect a power source for the ham radio equipment.
HOW DO YOU BECOME AN AMATEUR RADIO OPERATOR?
So, how do you become an amateur radio operator? While the technology required to start using amateur radio is straightforward and possible to master through self-training, you may need to go through a learning curve to become a Ham. This process includes understanding the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) rules that permit you to operate and use the proper air etiquette.
Additionally, you may need to undergo a licensing process. The first step is to study for and pass a written examination administered by the FCC. Once you pass the exam, you will then need to pass a practical exam that tests your ability to operate an amateur radio station.
After acquiring your amateur radio license, you can use amateur radio to communicate with other hams worldwide. But what types of ham radio licenses are available?
WHAT ARE THE AVAILABLE TYPES OF HAM RADIO LICENSES?
Operating an amateur radio without a license in the United States can attract a fine of between $7,500 and $10,000 unless you are in a severe emergency.
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) regulates amateur radio licenses in the Communications Act of 1934, and it has three license classes that vary in frequency, availability, and complexity. The class you choose will determine the frequency bands and modes you will be able to operate in.
The entry-level ham radio license is the Technician license, which is intended for beginner amateur radio enthusiasts. To acquire this license, you must pass a test with 35 questions that prove that you know all the essentials of radio rules and regulations. Once you pass the exam, you receive your license and gain access to amateur radio services and frequencies above 30 megahertz.
The General license is more advanced than the Technician’s license based on its operating principles. You must pass the Technician exam and take another 35-question exam to receive your General Mobile Radio Service license. This license provides you with the same access as a Technician’s license but has additional worldwide communications.
AMATEUR EXTRA LICENSE
After acquiring your General license, you must successfully pass an extra 50-question exam to obtain an Amateur Extra license. This license gives you all United States amateur radio communications privileges on all bands and modes.
As an integral part of the amateur radio operator’s license, the regulatory body in your country will assign you a call sign, such as KC9ANG, which is used to identify you as either the operator or the station during communications within the amateur radio community.
This call sign is comprised of the
- country you are calling from,
- the license identifier for that specific station,
- and the subdivision of your country.
It is crafted using a combination of numeric and alpha identifiers to create a unique identifier.
While most ham radio operators typically hold a technician license that fulfills their intended purpose, there is a limit on the maximum frequency that they can reach, which in turn necessitates the use of ham radio repeaters.
To achieve a more extensive reach, one must obtain a general license. After receiving your license, it will remain valid for a period of ten years, after which you will be required to renew it.
For further information on how to obtain any of the aforementioned ham radio licenses, please refer to our more in-depth article.
HOW DO YOU USE A HAM RADIO?
If you have already obtained your license, you can start using amateur radio to communicate with other hams worldwide for both leisure and crucial purposes. There are several ways to achieve this:
You can use your ham radio to talk to other hams worldwide in real-time, akin to a telephone conversation, without requiring an internet connection.
You can use a ham radio to send and receive data, including text messages, images, and files. This is comparable to email but without the need for an internet connection.
The most effective approach to getting started with ham radio is to locate a local club or group of hams who can help you get the hang of the basics. There are numerous online resources available that can assist you in getting started, including the ARRL website.
When communicating on amateur radio, be sure to speak clearly and naturally, without speaking too quickly or slowly. Use appropriate codes to respond and carry on a conversation if someone replies. After your call, make sure to log your contacts and send a QSL card to the person you contacted in the form of written mail.
WHAT ARE THE USES OF HAM RADIO?
Ham radio serves a plethora of purposes, with most hams using it for personal communication as a family radio service, whether talking to friends and family worldwide or simply chatting with other hams in their local area. Here are a few other popular uses for amateur radio:
Disaster preparedness: During global disasters, when it’s impossible to use the internet or smartphones, amateur radio can be employed for emergency communications, as it doesn’t rely on data grids or electricity.
International Space Station: As an astronaut, you can carry a handheld amateur radio to connect with your colleagues while flying through space.
Moon bouncing: You can use amateur radio to bounce radio waves off the moon, which increases amateur radio range and distance, allowing for communication with people worldwide.
Competitions: Hams who enjoy experimenting with amateur radio channels can partake in contests. A radio amateur can win awards, coupons, and cash prizes for having amateur radio frequencies-improving skills in the matches.
Distance dialing: If you enjoy connecting with people in far-off locations, you can collect frequencies and channels worldwide and showcase your skills online.
Digital data: With modern amateur radios, amateur operators can send digital signals globally, enabling you to send pictures and other information over the airwaves.
Overall, ham radios, across different bands, are widely employed across various industries and organizations, including but not limited to agriculture and farming, infrastructure construction
ADVANTAGES OF AMATEUR RADIO
EFFICIENT METHOD OF COMMUNICATION
The utility of the ham radio is not to be underestimated, for it represents an efficient method of communication that can be relied upon during disasters such as floods, when cell phones may prove inadequate for making calls, sending texts, or accessing the internet. In such instances, one can count on amateur radio technology to get the message across.
LONG-HOUR, LONG-DISTANCE COMMUNICATION
Furthermore, the energy efficiency of ham radios makes them well-suited for long-hour, long-distance communication, which can be a boon for those seeking entertainment or in need of reliable communication over great distances.
EFFECTIVE IN EMERGENCIES FOR AMATEUR RADIO OPERATORS
Amateur radio operators in particular find ham radio to be especially effective in emergencies, as it can be used over the long term with low power requirements and has a long-distance reach. For example, during the destruction of the command center in New York City on 9/11, the Amateur Radio Service was utilized by local agencies when other forms of communication proved ineffective.
OTHER ESSENTIAL BENEFITS OF HAM RADIO
In addition to these benefits, there are other noteworthy advantages to using a ham radio.
- they offer an extensive range of frequencies that help prevent overcrowding
- while also being easy to access without requiring knowledge of Morse code
- ham radio provides an efficient way to communicate without relying on cellular networks
- especially with the best mobile ham radio devices
- They have more power, with a base station having up to 1500 watts
- and can still communicate with operators having less than 10 watts
- ham radio is an affordable means of emergency communication with low start-up costs
- and it allows you to receive information about extreme weather and disasters directly from government agencies
WHAT ARE THE DRAWBACKS OF A HAM RADIO
However, it is important to be aware of the drawbacks of ham radio as well. Although these devices are relatively easy to use, those with no prior experience may face some challenges.
- amateur radios are relatively expensive compared to other regular radios, as the high prices for VHF and UHF equipment, which are crucial for clear and effective communication, can be a deterrent.
- Additionally, amateur radios can malfunction due to bad weather as they rely on airwaves for smooth signal transmission, which can be adversely affected by increased air humidity caused by rain.
- Moreover, operating a ham radio requires an amateur radio license from the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), which can be inconvenient when you need to communicate urgently and have no other option.
- Lastly, for effective communication, it is necessary to carry a power source like batteries when traveling with ham radio, in addition to other accessories like a laptop and radio equipment, which can result in bulky luggage.
In conclusion, ham radio is a vital tool that enables us to connect with people we would never encounter in our day-to-day lives. Although becoming a licensed ham operator may seem daunting, the effort is well worth it, as amateur radio provides an efficient means of communication that can be relied upon in times of need.
To get the most out of this powerful communication tool, it is critical to understand all the different components involved. While it is not mandatory to have all the components, having a receiver, transceiver, and the antenna is essential for a successful ham radio setup.
Despite the advent of new technologies, ham radio operators continue to enjoy popularity and remain an important part of the communication landscape, thanks to their long-distance reach and reliable transmission capabilities. With the right setup, ham radios are sure to remain a powerful tool for many years to come.